and 24. The land-measure differeth in diuers places, from 18. to 24. gallons the bushell, being least in the East parts, and increasing to the Westwards, where they measure Oates by the hogshead.

The Iustices of peace haue oftentimes indeuoured to reduce this variance to a certaintie of double Winchester: but though they raysed the lower, they cannot abate the higher to this proportion: and yet from the want of this reformation, there ensue many inconueniences; for the Farmer that hath the greatest bushell at the market, maketh a price for the lesser to follow with little, (or at least) no rateable deduction. Besides, they sell at home to their neighbours, the [55] rest of the weeke, by the smaller meafure, as was payd in the market for the bigger.

There are also some Ingrossers, who buy Wheat of the husbandman, after 18. gallons the bushell, and deliuer it to the transporting Marchant, for the same summe, at 16.

So doth their Pearch exceed that of other Countries, which amounteth vnto 18. foote. And it is likewise obserued by strangers, that the Cornish miles are much longer then those about London, if at least the wearinesse of their bodies (after so painefull a iourney) blemish not the coniecture of their mindes. I can impute this generall enlargement of saleable things, to no cause sooner, then the Cornish mans want of vent and money, who therethrough, to equall others in quality of price, is driuen to exceed them in quantitie of measure.

Touching the personall estate of the Cornish Inhabitants, to begin with their name in generall, I learne by master Camden (who, as the Arch-antiquarie Iustus Lipsius testifieth of him, Britanniae nebulas claro ingenij sole illustrauit) that Ptolomey calleth them Damnonii, Strabo Ostidamnii, and Aretemidorus, Cossini.

Touching their particular denominations; where the Saxons haue not intruded their newer vsances, they partake in some sort with their kinsmen the Welsh: for as the Welshmen catalogize ap Rice, ap Griffin, ap Owen, ap Tuder, ap Lewellin, &c. vntill they end in the highest of the stock, whom their memorie can reach vnto: So the Westerne Cornish, by alike, but more compendious maner, intitle one another with his owne & his fathers christen name, and conclude with the place of his dwelling; as Iohn, the sonne of Thomas, dwelling at Pendaruis, is called Iohn Thomas Pendaruis. Rich. his yonger brother is named, Richard Thomas Pendaruis, &c. Through which meanes, diuers Gent. and others haue changed their names, by remoouing their dwellings, as Trengoue to Nance, Bonithon, to Carclew, two brethren of the Thomasses, the one to Carnsew, the other to Rescrowe, and many other.

Most of them begin with Tre, Pol, or Pen, which signifie a Towne, a Top, and a head: whence grew the common by-word.

By Tre, Pol, and Pen, You shall know the Cornishmen.

Neither doe they want some signification, as Godolfin, alias Godolghan, a white Eagle: Chiwarton, the greene Castle on the hill: which Gentlemen giue such Armes; Reskimer, the great Dogges race, who beareth a Wolfe passant. Carnsew, alias, Carndew, a black rock: his house Bokelly, which soundeth the lost Goat: and a Goate he beareth for his coate: Carminow, a little Citie: Cosowarth, the high Groue, &c.

And as the Cornish names hold an affinity with the Welsh, so is their language deduced from the same source, and differeth onely in the dialect. But the Cornish is more easie to bee pronounced, and not so vnpleasing in sound, with throat letters, as the Welsh.

A friend of mine, one master Thomas Williams, discoursed once with mee, that the Cornish tongue was deriued from, or at least had some acquayntance with the Greeke: and besides diuers reasons which hee produced to proue the same, he vouched many wordes of one sence in both; as for example :

[56]

Greeke Cornish English

Teino Tedna Draw Mamma Mamm Mother Episcopos Escoppe Bishop Klyo Klowo Heere Didaskein Dathisky To teach Kyon Kye Dogge Kentron Kentron Spurre Methyo Methow Drink Scaphe Scapth Boat Ronchos Ronche Snorting, &c.

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The Survey of Cornwall Page 49

Richard Carew

16th Century Literature

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